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Atomic force microscopy noise

(a) Calculated thermal displacement noise that appears in atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements using the optical beam deflection method, for the first ten flexural normal modes of a free cantilever. The noise strongly depends on the ratio of the diameter of the focused optical spot to the cantilever length, w/L.

(b) Cumulative thermal noise from modes 1-n.

Submitted by Dr. Tilman Schäffer, University of Münster.